LiDAR – Light Detection and Ranging.
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Light Detection and Ranging stands for the acronym of LiDAR that is a speed gun utilized by law enforcement for controlling speed that uses laser to measure the speed of a vehicle. It is different from radar speed guns that rely on shifts of Doppler to determine the speed of a vehicle, LiDAR allows a traffic officer to determine the speed of an individual vehicle even within a stream of traffic for it relies on the principle of time-of-flight of two or more short length of 904nm wave near the infrared LASER pulses.

Here are the sequences of events happening over the course of a fraction of second actualized by a single press of the trigger of LiDAR gun:

1.Aim: Using a telescopic monocular that can be a monocular 8X scope or any model embedded into the LiDAR gun, the police officer aims the LiDAR “cross-hairs”. The police officer using the 8x scope can see the target vehicle before the vehicle operator sees the police officer. Coated with retroreflective materials, the license plates are designed to bring about 4 milliradian reflections that are returning back to the receiver aperture of the LIDAR gun of the police officer. A LiDAR unit anywhere can record speed from ~2,000 feet to ~7,000 feet (1 and 1/3 mile).

2. Fire laser: The aim of a police officer is often targeted at the license plate or the secondary reflector like the chrome grill-work, headlight and other bright spot. An area of illumination is visible within 1 square meter at 300 meters distance of the four milliradian cones. Due to this capability, LiDAR easily gets a separate reading from any vehicle even if there are many vehicles in a group. When the police officer presses the trigger of the LiDAR gun, a short 30 nanosecond laser pulse is aimed towards the target and hits the target vehicle. The pulse released at the same time is caught by a high resolution high-speed timer built within the LiDAR gun. The LiDAR is able to measure time-in-flight of every pulse and takes 2 readings over a period a time of 3/1000 second that determines the velocity of the vehicle.

3. Reflection: To a certain degree, the laser pulse is reflected from the target vehicle preferably from license plate. LiDAR guns is using about 50W laser diodes that gives 30 nanosecond pulses at a rate of 1 KHz. It is able to produce instantaneous power pulses of 1000 3mW that are safe for the eyes and outside the human visual system. Presence of much power ensures enough energy to the reflected pulse providing speed measurements at long distances as the reflected pulse degrades energy is exponentially over distance.

4. Detection: An internal calculation is made based on the speed-of-light and the laser pulse’s time-in-flight as it is divided by two to account for a one way trip time. To determine a velocity, a number of pulses must be measured and then the variances are considered in error checking that is like the Police LiDAR gun.

5. Capabilities: The LiDAR can measure vehicles that are approaching coming the LiDAR gun or moving away from the LiDAR gun. It is more often used to measure the coming target vehicle toward the LiDAR gun for the police officer operating alone, is allowed to wave the driver down for ticketing/arrest.

Source: Ocean Service NOAA Gov


Source: En Wikipedia Org





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